The town of Palmanova, which is located in northeastern Italy, started as a fortress built by the Venetian empire in the 16th and 17th centuries in order to prevent the attacks from Austrian and Turkish forces. The construction of the fortress took about a century to complete. It features a concentric star formation, consisting of three rings that were built in stages.
The whole town is practically closed by a circular area that features a circumference of 7 km and is surrounded by a moat with nine arrow-shaped inter-connected ramparts that emerged out of the town so the points could defend each other.
The builders of this town wished to include geometrical harmony into its design because they believed that the beauty reinforces the wellness of a society.
Despite the fact that Palmanova is a fortress, it never saw a battle and even though it features an apparently impenetrable defense, it was captured twice – first by Napoleon and then back by the Kingdom of Italy.